Tuesday, August 3, 2010

carpentry ( tle 50 )


Carpentry and plumbing

What is Carpentry?

  • The art of cutting, framing, and joining timber, as in the construction of buildings. An assemblage of pieces of timber connected by being framed together, as the pieces of a roof, floor, etc.; work done by a carpenter.

What is Plumbing?

  • The pipes, fixtures, and other apparatus of a water, gas, or sewage system in a building. The work or trade of a plumber. Informal. An arrangement of bodily vessels or ducts: "treating stroke victims by reversing the plumbing of the body's circulatory system" (Associated Press).

How to make Hallow Blocks


  • Inflate a beach ball and use a felt pen to draw a circle around the top, with the air valve in the center. This will be the opening of your concrete block.

  • Apply water-based concrete-releasing agents to the entire surface of the ball.

  • Wrap strips of hardware cloth around the surface of the ball, leaving the area inside the drawn circle clear. Be sure the strips remain as evenly spaced as possible: Multiple layers on top of one another will create an uneven surface, which makes it trickier to get the concrete sphere right.

  • Place a layer of wet concrete around the surface of the ball. The layer should be a uniform 1/2 inch thick around the entire surface. The area inside the drawn circle should be kept completely free of concrete mix.

  • Allow the concrete to harden for at least 24 hours.

  • Deflate the ball and carefully remove it from the concrete.

  • Add additional layers of concrete over the first until the block is of the desired thickness. You may wish to do this in stages, adding a little concrete at a time instead of placing it all on at once.


handicrafts ( tle 50 )

TLE 50



How to make “Refrigerator Towel”


  • 1 pc. Thread any color

  • 1 pc. Button blue

  • 1 pc. Towel

  • 1 pc hook ( #7 )


First step

  • Gather all materials needed.

Second step

  • With the use of a hook, make a crochet

Third step

  • Insert the hook to the towel and do the single stitch then 4 chain. Repeat the step until the end of the towel. Next layer will be 4 chain and treble stitch up to 4 layers.Put the button on the top.

Final Product

basic electicity (tle 50 )

TLE 50

Basic Electricity

What is electricity?

  • Form of energy generated by fiction, induction, chemical changes.

  • Comes from the word electrons.


  • Electrical pressure that pushes electrons to flow.

  • Voltage ( V )


  • Flow of electrons.

  • Ampere ( I ) unit of current.


  • To limit the flow of current.

  • Opposition to the flow of current ( OHM ).

  • ( R )


  • The rate of doing work

  • Represent Watts

  • ( P )

Sources of electricity

  1. friction

  2. induction

  3. chemical reaction


  • A materials which allow the electrons to flow


copper wire, steel iron, water, aluminum, silver, gold


  • A materials which does not allow to gasp.


rubber, wood, plastic, glass, paper, air, dry cloth, porcelain, ceramics, mica, fiber

Basic tools used in Electricity

Side Cutter Diagonal Pliers

  • used to cut wire. They are specially designed with a cutting edge that goes down to the tip of the pliers. The advantage being that you can get into tight areas to trim wires. There are some that are equipped with live wire detection capabilities.

Tape Measure

  • is use to measure heights for switches and outlets. You will also need it to center lighting fixture boxes.


  • is used to secure boxes equipped with nail-on brackets to studs in a home.

Wire strippers

  • are used to cut the insulation off of the wire. They are equipped with different sized cutting teeth for various sized wires. They also have a cutoff portion in order to cut the wire.

Linesman Pliers

  • These pliers are the do-it-all pliers. They cut, twist wires together, and grip wires for pulling. They have a squared off end that is great for twisting wires together, a center cutting blade for cutting wire, and a grip area between the handles to pull wire.


  • An electronic device that can measure both AC and DC Voltages and Ohms. The display is either a meter or a digital readout.

fishery arts (tle 21)

TLE 21

Fishery Arts


  • Science which deals with the study, utilization, conservation of fish and other fishery products, their fishing ground and the right to use such products.


  • Act on the business of catchery, culturing, preserving fish and other fishery products.

Major Aspects

  1. Fish culture or inland fisheries or sova culture

  2. Fish capture or marine fisheries

  3. Fish preservation


  • includes all aquatic animals in water


  • The way of developing those experience and educate

  • To raise. To rear, or to propagate

  • Process of raising fish and other fishery products in either artificial or natural bodies of water in maintaining the maximum productivity of fish for future generation.

Artificial bodies of water

  • Fishpond, aquarium

Natural bodies of water

  • Seas, river

Fish capture

  • Process of catching fish by using different fishing gears

Fish preservation

  • To preserve and avoid spoilage

Classification of Aquaculture of fish culture:

A. According ta area

          1. intensive fish farming – small area of raising fish more care, more production.

          2. Extensive fish farming – wide area of raising fish

B. According to origin

        1. artificial

        2. natural

C. According to habitat

1. fresh

2. brackish – combination of fresh and marine water.

3. marine

D. According to purpose

1. for commercial purposes

2. for recreational purposes

3. for family subsistence


food 3 ( tle 12 )

TLE 12

Food 3 – Food Preservation


How to cook “Smoked Bangus”


  • Bangus (whole)

  • Brine solution (composed of 267.03 grams of salt per liter of water)

  • Smoking trays

  • Smokehouse


  • Wash bangus, remove gills and viscera. Wash well then drain.

  • Debone the bangus.

  • Soak in saturated brine solution for 60 to 120 minutes depending on the size of the fish.

  • Precook in boiling 10 percent brine solution for 15 to 20 minutes.

  • Dry surface until pellicle is formed

  • Arrange in smoking trays and expose to smoke for 30 minutes to one hour.

  • Smoke until golden brown

  • Cool then pack in containers


food 1 ( tle 10 )


Food 1 – Selection, Preparation and Preservation


How to cook “Chicken Lollipop”


  • chicken wings (upper portion of the wings)

  • 1/2 tsp. salt

  • dash of pepper

  • oil for deep frying

Dredging mixture:

  • 1/2 cup flour

  • 1/4 cup cornstarch

  • 1 tsp. garlic powder

  • dash of red chills (optional)


First step:

  • Cut chicken at the joints.

Second step:

  • Pull skin and scrape the meat and push it down to the other end of the joint to form a ball.

Third step:

  • Set aside. Reserve the other parts for soup or other purposes.

Fourth step:

  • Marinate chicken with salt and pepper for half an hour. Mix the dredging mixture. Combine the chicken and coating mixture. Let rest for half an hour.

Fifth step:

  • In deep pan, dip fry chicken over medium heat until golden brown. Serve hot with your fave dips.


Monday, August 2, 2010

Clothing and Grooming

TLE 51

Clothing and grooming


“Blouse making”


  • Make first the pattern of front bodice

  • After making the pattern of front bodice, make the pattern of the sleeve.

  • Make the pattern of the collar.

  • After all the Patterns are made proceeds to the making of the blouse.

Front Bodice


  • Bodice length – it is taken from the shoulder neck point with the tape measure passing over the apex point down to the waist point

  • Shoulder width – taken from one shoulder tip point to the other shoulder tip point

  • Bust – taken around the body with tape measure passing over the apex point at the front part and shoulder blades point at the back part

  • Apex height – taken from the shoulder neck down to the apex point

  • Apex distance – taken from the one apex point to the other apex point

  • Waist – around the natural waistline

  • Armhole – taken around the arm where it joints the body


  • Make a construction line

  • A – is the starting point

  • AB – Bodice length

  • AC – 3” - 3 ½”

  • AL – Apex height

  • AD - ¼ Bust + ¾”

  • AE - ½ shoulder width

  • EF – ½”

  • AH - 3”

  • EG – 1 ½ of the shoulder width is 15” or more 1 ¼ if the shoulder width is less than 15”

  • GI – 4”

  • GIK - ½ armhole + ½

  • LM - ½ apex distance

  • BN - ½ apex distance minus ½

  • NO – 1 ¼ – 1 ½

  • BN + OJ - ¼ waist

  • JP – ½”

Sample of Bodice Pattern



  • Sleeve length – taken from the shoulder tip point to the desired length of sleeve

  • Armhole – taken around where the arm joins the body

  • Lower Arm Girth – the circumference of the arm where sleeve swill fall


  • AB – sleeve length

  • AC – 5”

  • AD - ½ armhole divide AD into 4 equal parts. Mark EFG respectively

  • EH – ¾” ( outward )

  • FI – 5/8” ( outward )

  • GJ - ½” ( inward )

  • BK - ½ lower arm girth

Sample of sleeve pattern


  • Cloth

  • Thread

  • Scissor

  • The patter of Front bodice, Sleeve and Collar


  • Edge stitch the following:

    1. Shoulder seam

    2. Side seam

    3. Lower part of the blouse

  • Sew the dart ( back )

  • Prepare the pocket ( patch with band )

    1. Lay-out the pocket at side

    2. Back stitch dart, hemline and side

  • Sew the dart ( front )

  • Sew the center back collar ( bodice )

  • Sew the center back collar ( facing )

    1. Join the edge of the collar

    2. Slash the seam allowance

    3. Increase the seam allowance

  • Join the shoulder seam ( front and back )

  • Attach the neck edge of collar to the neckline

  • fastened the neck edge of the collar (facing to the neckline of bodice )

  • Sew the side seam ( plain )

  • Prepare the sleeve

    1. Edge stitch the lower portion of sleeve

    2. Join the underarm seam of sleeve ( french )

    3. Attach the sleeve to the armhole

    4. Trim and zigzag the seam allowance

  • Fold the facing towards the right side and stitch

  • Hem the lower portion of the blouse

  • Locate the correct placement of buttonholes

  • Make handwork buttonholes

  • Remove hanging threads

  • Press fit and evaluate the project.


Basic electronics (tle 90 )

TLE 90

Basic Electronics


  • is the branch of science and technology which makes use of the controlled motion of electrons through different media and vacuum. The ability to control electron flow is usually applied to information handling or device control.


  • is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.


  • is a subatomic particle carrying a negative electric charge. It has no known components or substructure, and elementary particle. Protons is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge. Neutrons is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.


  • is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects are made includes atoms and particles which have mass. Matter is commomly said to exist in four states: solid,liquid, gas and plasma.

Sources of voltage:

  • Chemical- battery

  • Photoelectric- solid

  • Generator- magnetism

  • Thermocouple(heat)

Types of Current

  • Direct Current - the flow of electric charge is only in one direction.

  • Alternating Current - the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction.
  • Pulsating Direct Current - is a direct current that changes in value at regular or irregular intervals.

Ohm's law

  • states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them.

The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is:

where V is the potential difference measured across the resistance in units of volts; I is the current through the resistance in units of amperes and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.

Power supply

  • is a supply of electrical power. A device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a power supply unit or PSU. The term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones, and rarely to others.

A power supply may include a power distribution system as well as primary or secondary sources of energy such as:

  • Conversion of one form of electrical power to another desired form and voltage, typically involving converting AC line voltage to a well-regulated lower-voltage DC for electronic devices. Low voltage, low power DC power supply units are commonly integrated with the devices they supply, such as computers and household electronics.

  • Batteries

  • Chemical fuel cells and other forms of energy storage systems

  • Solar power

  • Generators or alternators

Schematic diagram of Power Supply

Power Supply

Agricultural arts ( tle 20 )

TLE 20

Agricultural Arts


  • is the production of food and goods through farming. Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human civilization, with the husbandry of domesticated animals and plants (i.e. crops) creating food surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated and stratified societies. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite

Organic pesticide

  • is an organic chemical, meaning that the molecule consists mainly of a carbon skeleton plus other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus or chlorine. By this definition, nearly all pesticides are organic, while only a few are inorganic, such as copper sulfate, cryolite, lead arsenate, Mercurochrome chloride and phosphine. A pesticide that is claimed to be environmentally friendly. By this definition, very few pesticides are organic. Claims that a pesticide is environmentally friendly should be viewed with scepticism.

Bokashi products

  • being used increasingly to create powerful natural fertilizers and compost for home garden, reducing agricultural effluent on farms, reducing landfill footprints in remote, inaccessible places.

  • Reduce organic waste in volume

  • Enhance soil condition

  • Reduce smelly odors

  • Speed up the rate of decomposition

  • Enable organic matter to be reused to promote the growth of other plants and animals

Inorganic pesticides

  • do not contain carbon as part of their chemical composition. These compounds usually have relatively low molecular weights and often contain less than 10 atoms. Several inorganic salts (often white and crystalline) are classified in this category of pesticides. A few inorganic pesticides have been used for more than 1000 years but their use increased dramatically from 1850 to 1950. The popularity of many inorganic pesticides declined after the development of more effective and less persistent organic pesticides.

Lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus

  • is an unusual tropical grass as an essential flavoring in South East Asian cooking. Its bright lemony scent is used in drinks, curries and soups. It is delicious in tea with cloves. It’s rich in vitamin A. Its oil also has many industrial and medicinal uses.

Grow in a frost

  • free place in full sun or light shade. The herb likes moist, well-drained soil that is slightly acidic. It grows best in warm, humid conditions. It can also be grown in a container or in the greenhouse. If you move your plant outdoors for the summer, allow it to acclimatize over a number of days, first placing it in shade, then moving it to part shade before giving it full sun.

Lemon grass Cultivation

  • The plant can be grown from seed or division. The many varieties available, mostly used in commercial cultivation, do not come true from seed, and seeds germinate slowly, so vegetative propagation is usually preferred. Lift and cut apart clumps in early spring or fall. Space 3 feet apart. Lemon grass is clump forming and does not runner and become invasive like some grasses. Water regularly in summer.

Inorganic fertlzer

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