Tuesday, August 3, 2010

carpentry ( tle 50 )


Carpentry and plumbing

What is Carpentry?

  • The art of cutting, framing, and joining timber, as in the construction of buildings. An assemblage of pieces of timber connected by being framed together, as the pieces of a roof, floor, etc.; work done by a carpenter.

What is Plumbing?

  • The pipes, fixtures, and other apparatus of a water, gas, or sewage system in a building. The work or trade of a plumber. Informal. An arrangement of bodily vessels or ducts: "treating stroke victims by reversing the plumbing of the body's circulatory system" (Associated Press).

How to make Hallow Blocks


  • Inflate a beach ball and use a felt pen to draw a circle around the top, with the air valve in the center. This will be the opening of your concrete block.

  • Apply water-based concrete-releasing agents to the entire surface of the ball.

  • Wrap strips of hardware cloth around the surface of the ball, leaving the area inside the drawn circle clear. Be sure the strips remain as evenly spaced as possible: Multiple layers on top of one another will create an uneven surface, which makes it trickier to get the concrete sphere right.

  • Place a layer of wet concrete around the surface of the ball. The layer should be a uniform 1/2 inch thick around the entire surface. The area inside the drawn circle should be kept completely free of concrete mix.

  • Allow the concrete to harden for at least 24 hours.

  • Deflate the ball and carefully remove it from the concrete.

  • Add additional layers of concrete over the first until the block is of the desired thickness. You may wish to do this in stages, adding a little concrete at a time instead of placing it all on at once.


handicrafts ( tle 50 )

TLE 50



How to make “Refrigerator Towel”


  • 1 pc. Thread any color

  • 1 pc. Button blue

  • 1 pc. Towel

  • 1 pc hook ( #7 )


First step

  • Gather all materials needed.

Second step

  • With the use of a hook, make a crochet

Third step

  • Insert the hook to the towel and do the single stitch then 4 chain. Repeat the step until the end of the towel. Next layer will be 4 chain and treble stitch up to 4 layers.Put the button on the top.

Final Product

basic electicity (tle 50 )

TLE 50

Basic Electricity

What is electricity?

  • Form of energy generated by fiction, induction, chemical changes.

  • Comes from the word electrons.


  • Electrical pressure that pushes electrons to flow.

  • Voltage ( V )


  • Flow of electrons.

  • Ampere ( I ) unit of current.


  • To limit the flow of current.

  • Opposition to the flow of current ( OHM ).

  • ( R )


  • The rate of doing work

  • Represent Watts

  • ( P )

Sources of electricity

  1. friction

  2. induction

  3. chemical reaction


  • A materials which allow the electrons to flow


copper wire, steel iron, water, aluminum, silver, gold


  • A materials which does not allow to gasp.


rubber, wood, plastic, glass, paper, air, dry cloth, porcelain, ceramics, mica, fiber

Basic tools used in Electricity

Side Cutter Diagonal Pliers

  • used to cut wire. They are specially designed with a cutting edge that goes down to the tip of the pliers. The advantage being that you can get into tight areas to trim wires. There are some that are equipped with live wire detection capabilities.

Tape Measure

  • is use to measure heights for switches and outlets. You will also need it to center lighting fixture boxes.


  • is used to secure boxes equipped with nail-on brackets to studs in a home.

Wire strippers

  • are used to cut the insulation off of the wire. They are equipped with different sized cutting teeth for various sized wires. They also have a cutoff portion in order to cut the wire.

Linesman Pliers

  • These pliers are the do-it-all pliers. They cut, twist wires together, and grip wires for pulling. They have a squared off end that is great for twisting wires together, a center cutting blade for cutting wire, and a grip area between the handles to pull wire.


  • An electronic device that can measure both AC and DC Voltages and Ohms. The display is either a meter or a digital readout.

fishery arts (tle 21)

TLE 21

Fishery Arts


  • Science which deals with the study, utilization, conservation of fish and other fishery products, their fishing ground and the right to use such products.


  • Act on the business of catchery, culturing, preserving fish and other fishery products.

Major Aspects

  1. Fish culture or inland fisheries or sova culture

  2. Fish capture or marine fisheries

  3. Fish preservation


  • includes all aquatic animals in water


  • The way of developing those experience and educate

  • To raise. To rear, or to propagate

  • Process of raising fish and other fishery products in either artificial or natural bodies of water in maintaining the maximum productivity of fish for future generation.

Artificial bodies of water

  • Fishpond, aquarium

Natural bodies of water

  • Seas, river

Fish capture

  • Process of catching fish by using different fishing gears

Fish preservation

  • To preserve and avoid spoilage

Classification of Aquaculture of fish culture:

A. According ta area

          1. intensive fish farming – small area of raising fish more care, more production.

          2. Extensive fish farming – wide area of raising fish

B. According to origin

        1. artificial

        2. natural

C. According to habitat

1. fresh

2. brackish – combination of fresh and marine water.

3. marine

D. According to purpose

1. for commercial purposes

2. for recreational purposes

3. for family subsistence


food 3 ( tle 12 )

TLE 12

Food 3 – Food Preservation


How to cook “Smoked Bangus”


  • Bangus (whole)

  • Brine solution (composed of 267.03 grams of salt per liter of water)

  • Smoking trays

  • Smokehouse


  • Wash bangus, remove gills and viscera. Wash well then drain.

  • Debone the bangus.

  • Soak in saturated brine solution for 60 to 120 minutes depending on the size of the fish.

  • Precook in boiling 10 percent brine solution for 15 to 20 minutes.

  • Dry surface until pellicle is formed

  • Arrange in smoking trays and expose to smoke for 30 minutes to one hour.

  • Smoke until golden brown

  • Cool then pack in containers


food 1 ( tle 10 )


Food 1 – Selection, Preparation and Preservation


How to cook “Chicken Lollipop”


  • chicken wings (upper portion of the wings)

  • 1/2 tsp. salt

  • dash of pepper

  • oil for deep frying

Dredging mixture:

  • 1/2 cup flour

  • 1/4 cup cornstarch

  • 1 tsp. garlic powder

  • dash of red chills (optional)


First step:

  • Cut chicken at the joints.

Second step:

  • Pull skin and scrape the meat and push it down to the other end of the joint to form a ball.

Third step:

  • Set aside. Reserve the other parts for soup or other purposes.

Fourth step:

  • Marinate chicken with salt and pepper for half an hour. Mix the dredging mixture. Combine the chicken and coating mixture. Let rest for half an hour.

Fifth step:

  • In deep pan, dip fry chicken over medium heat until golden brown. Serve hot with your fave dips.


Monday, August 2, 2010

Clothing and Grooming

TLE 51

Clothing and grooming


“Blouse making”


  • Make first the pattern of front bodice

  • After making the pattern of front bodice, make the pattern of the sleeve.

  • Make the pattern of the collar.

  • After all the Patterns are made proceeds to the making of the blouse.

Front Bodice


  • Bodice length – it is taken from the shoulder neck point with the tape measure passing over the apex point down to the waist point

  • Shoulder width – taken from one shoulder tip point to the other shoulder tip point

  • Bust – taken around the body with tape measure passing over the apex point at the front part and shoulder blades point at the back part

  • Apex height – taken from the shoulder neck down to the apex point

  • Apex distance – taken from the one apex point to the other apex point

  • Waist – around the natural waistline

  • Armhole – taken around the arm where it joints the body


  • Make a construction line

  • A – is the starting point

  • AB – Bodice length

  • AC – 3” - 3 ½”

  • AL – Apex height

  • AD - ¼ Bust + ¾”

  • AE - ½ shoulder width

  • EF – ½”

  • AH - 3”

  • EG – 1 ½ of the shoulder width is 15” or more 1 ¼ if the shoulder width is less than 15”

  • GI – 4”

  • GIK - ½ armhole + ½

  • LM - ½ apex distance

  • BN - ½ apex distance minus ½

  • NO – 1 ¼ – 1 ½

  • BN + OJ - ¼ waist

  • JP – ½”

Sample of Bodice Pattern



  • Sleeve length – taken from the shoulder tip point to the desired length of sleeve

  • Armhole – taken around where the arm joins the body

  • Lower Arm Girth – the circumference of the arm where sleeve swill fall


  • AB – sleeve length

  • AC – 5”

  • AD - ½ armhole divide AD into 4 equal parts. Mark EFG respectively

  • EH – ¾” ( outward )

  • FI – 5/8” ( outward )

  • GJ - ½” ( inward )

  • BK - ½ lower arm girth

Sample of sleeve pattern


  • Cloth

  • Thread

  • Scissor

  • The patter of Front bodice, Sleeve and Collar


  • Edge stitch the following:

    1. Shoulder seam

    2. Side seam

    3. Lower part of the blouse

  • Sew the dart ( back )

  • Prepare the pocket ( patch with band )

    1. Lay-out the pocket at side

    2. Back stitch dart, hemline and side

  • Sew the dart ( front )

  • Sew the center back collar ( bodice )

  • Sew the center back collar ( facing )

    1. Join the edge of the collar

    2. Slash the seam allowance

    3. Increase the seam allowance

  • Join the shoulder seam ( front and back )

  • Attach the neck edge of collar to the neckline

  • fastened the neck edge of the collar (facing to the neckline of bodice )

  • Sew the side seam ( plain )

  • Prepare the sleeve

    1. Edge stitch the lower portion of sleeve

    2. Join the underarm seam of sleeve ( french )

    3. Attach the sleeve to the armhole

    4. Trim and zigzag the seam allowance

  • Fold the facing towards the right side and stitch

  • Hem the lower portion of the blouse

  • Locate the correct placement of buttonholes

  • Make handwork buttonholes

  • Remove hanging threads

  • Press fit and evaluate the project.


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